Saturday, 15 February 2014

15 computer basics

15 computer basics

1) Transistors - The computer contains millions of transistors, which are used to create machine language.

2) Machine language - All computers and electronic devices communicate in binary, which is a series of 0's and 1's or Off and On electrical signals. All software written on your computer is created in a high-level programming language that humans can understand, when complete the program is compiled into the machine language computers understand.

3) ASCII codes - Each binary 0 or 1 is considered a bit and each number, letter, or other character are made up eight bits (one byte). A common method for storing and editing text is done with ASCII codes, which is one byte of binary. For example, the lowercase letter "a" has a ASCII code decimal value of 97, which is 01100001 in binary.

4) Motherboard - The Motherboard is the largest circuit board in the computer that holds and connects everything together. Without the motherboard, components like your processor and memory couldn't communicate with each other.

5) Processor - The processor or CPU is the brain of the computer and is where all instructions given to the computer are handled.

6) Computer memory - Not to be confused with disk storage, the computer memory (RAM,) is volatile memory and is used to store currently running applications. When the computer is turned off, all data in the memory is lost.

7) Computer disk storage - Also considered a memory, but a non-volatile memory, hard drive storage is what stores your information even when the computer is turned off. Disk storage is what stores all your personal files, documents, songs, photos, etc.

8) ROM - Yet another memory, read-only memory (ROM) is a memory chip that has data that can only be read. Most computers today have a programmable read only memory (PROM), which is still read-only but can be re-programmed if needed with a firmware update.

9) Memory capacity - All memory and storage has a total capacity, which is written using abbreviations such as KB, MB, GB, and TB. See the full overview of all computer capacities for a complete understanding of all values.
10) Input/output - A computer works with a human by him or her inputting data using an input device such as a keyboard, having the processor process that data, and then displaying the output on an output device such as a monitor. The printer is also another output device and is what allows you to get a hard copy of documents and pictures stored on the computer.

11) Expansion cards - An expansion card is a card that can be added to the computer to give it additional capabilities. A video card, modem, network card, and sound card are all examples of expansion cards. However, many computers may also have on-board devices, such as a sound card and network card that are built onto the motherboard. For a laptop computer, additional cards are added into the PC Card slot.

12) Software and Hardware - Software is instructions and code installed into the computer, for example, the Internet browser you're using to read this page is software. Hardware is a physical device you can touch, for example, the monitor you're using to read this page is hardware. See the differences between computer hardware and software for more information.

13) Programming - All software running on the computer has been created using a programming language by a computer programmer.

14) Operating system - Every computer must have an operating system in order to allow the software to communicate with the hardware. For example, most IBM compatible computers run the Microsoft Windows operating system and have the option to run alternative operating such as a Linux variant. Apple computers only run MacOS.

15) Network - Computers communicate with other computers over a network using a network interface card (NIC). There are two primary types of networks a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN). The Internet is also considered a network.

Ujjwal Ganesh

Author & Editor

I belong to Patna,Bihar.I have done B.Tech in Computer Science and right now i'm working as Digital Marketing Trainee at SEOCZAR IT Services Pvt Ltd.


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